Paper Summaries (Part 2)

Below are the remaining summaries of the papers mentioned in my Description Stage and Papers blog post.

Shanableh, T. (2012). Matrix encoding for data hiding using multilayer video coding and transcoding solutions.

This paper proposes a technique for hiding data in the MPEG file format. Matrix encoding is used in this method to encode data in the quantisation scales and motion vectors of the compressed MPEG video.

The technique described in this paper involves building up the encoding over several layers; the authors explain that they have taken this approach due to some of the limitations of the video format. For instance, the number of quantisation scales available in coded video frames is limited.

This paper discusses video steganography approaches that modify the LSB of the DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) coefficients to manipulate JPEG frames. There are also several references to papers that explore steganographic techniques involving DCT.

Liu, B., Lin. F., Lu, B. & Luo, X. (2006). Real-Time Steganography in Compressed Video.

This paper discusses “an adaptive and large capacity steganography method applicable to compressed video”.

This paper identifies that algorithms that work with video “require complete or at best decompression” to work with the data stream. This paper documents a unique approach that involves working in the VLC (variable length code) domain without a need for full or partial decompression. In order for the requirements of the compressed domain are to be satisfied, data should be encoded in the entropy-coded portion of the video.

Anderson, R. Stretching the Limits of Steganography.

Anderson starts this paper with a brief history of steganography. He references D Khan (Khan, D. (1967) “The Codebreakers”. Macmillan) for this section – this could be worth reading.

This paper provides an overview of the concept of public-key steganography. Whilst it does not go into great depths, it does cover aspects such as how the technique would stand up to scrutiny under active and passive wardens.

Watkins, J. (2001). Steganography - Messages Hidden in Bits.

This paper provides a good introduction and background to steganography and differentiates between the fields of steganography and cryptography. There are some noteworthy quotes in the introduction and background section.

This paper discusses some of the fundamental steganography techniques such as LSB schemes – no new techniques or concepts are discussed.

The application of digital watermarking and steganalysis is explained, but again, nothing new is documented. In the steganalysis section, some case studies are discussed. However, the studies in question seemed largely unsuccessful.

Jyothi, V. B., Verma, S. M., Shanker, C. U. (2010). Implementation and Analysis of Email Messages Encryption and Image Steganography Schemes for Image Authentication and Verification.

This paper discussed a slightly unusual concept of using steganography to address integrity and authentication issues regarding email messages. The authors document how they produced a system that encodes authentication details for the message into an image attached to the same email and used to authenticate the message contents.

This paper discusses general image steganography techniques and acknowledges the application of linguistic steganography.

Bandyopadhyay, S. K. & Datta, B. (2011). Higher LSB Layer Based Audio Steganography Technique.

This paper is solely focused on audio steganography. The authors discuss how different LSB levels can be encoded into audio and how effective each variant is. In general, this paper discusses variations on LSB schemes for audio steganography.

Yang, G., Li, J. He, Y. & Kang, Z. (2010). An information hiding algorithm based on intra-prediction modes and matrix coding for H.264/AVC video stream.

This paper discusses the development of an encoding system that is block-based, where two bits are encoded in a 4x4 block. This technique has been explored elsewhere, but the steganography capacity of previous works was low. However, this technique does come with the trade-off of being heavily robust. Robustness is essential, especially when working with lossy compression formats.

This paper discusses an “improved” system that modifies the intra-prediction modes for each 4x4 block.

Rabah, K. (2004). Steganography - The Art of Hiding Data.

This paper provides a general overview of the history, techniques and tools currently used in steganography.

Sherly A. P. & Amritha P. P. A. (2010). Compressed Video Steganography using TPVD.

This paper discusses a technique for encoding data in compressed video. Specifically, the technique involves embedding data in I-frames with maximum scene change and in block frames with maximum magnitude of motion vectors. The novel approach proposed for this is called “tri-way pixel-value differencing”. This method does not require decompression and has high imperceptibility and capacity.

This technique also explores how pixel information in smooth areas and edges can be treated differently. For example, the human eyes have a greater tolerance for more substantial colour changes at a boundary/edge, but anything other than a slight variation in a smooth region is significantly noticeable.

Budhia, U. & Kundur, D. (2004). Digital video steganalysis exploiting collusion sensitivity.

This paper is dedicated to different steganalysis techniques and provides a good introduction and definition of steganalysis. In addition, this paper provides a reasonably high level of detail on how collusion and classification based steganalysis can be applied to video cover objects.

Budhia, U., Kundur, D., Zourntos, T. (2006). Digital Video Steganalysis Exploiting Statistical Visibility in the Temporal Domain.

This is another paper that explains how collusion-based steganalysis can be used on a video cover object. This paper describes an “interframe collusion” technique that overcomes the suboptimal frame-by-frame approach used in many steganalytical techniques. The mathematics and details behind the technique are detailed in length.